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COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT

HISTORICAL FICTION

Chronologically and Historically Related

BY

JAMES R. KAYE, Ph.D.

Author of Chart History of the World; The Key to the Treasury; The Chart Bible: Essentials of History; Students' Bible Manual, etc.

Published and Copyrighted by the

SNOWDON PUBLISHING COMPANY

CHICAGO, ILL. 1920

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CONTENTS

PART I. THE ANCIENT ERA

CHAPTER I. EGYPT 4

I. Prior to the Christian Era 4

Period of the Hyksos Kings 7

Reign of Thothmes III 8

Thebes 9

Period of Rameses II 10

Period of Rameses XIII 12

Period of Ptolemy II 12

II. The Christian Era 13

The Second Century 14

The Third Century 15

The Fourth Century 17

The Fifth Century 18

CHAPTER II. ASSYRIA 22

Semiramis 23

Reign of Tiglath-Pileser III 24

CHAPTER III. PERSIA 26

The Fall of Babylon 27

Reign of Cambyses II 29

Reign of Xerxes 1 30

CHAPTER IV. GREECE 33

The Persian Wars 35

Pausanias 37

Age of Pericles 38

The Peloponnesian War 40

Period of Alexander the Great 43

CHAPTER V. CARTHAGE 46

The Punic Wars 47

Hamilcar 47

Hannibal 48

Fall of Carthage 50

The New Carthage 51

CHAPTER VI. THE ROMAN REPUBLIC 54

Mithridates and Spartacus 56

Julius Caesar 58

iii

iv CONTENTS

CHAPTER VII. THE ROMAN EMPIRE 61

I. Period of Expansion From Augustus to Trajan 62

The Augustan Age 63

Reign of Tiberius 65

Reign of Claudius 69

Reign of Nero 72

Reign of Vespasian 76

Reign of Titus 79

Reign of Domitian 81

Reign of Nerva 82

Reign of Trajan 83

II. Period of Prosperity and Decline From Hadrian to Diocle- tian 84

Reign of Hadrian 85

Reign of Marcus Aurelius 86

Reigns of Decius and Valerian 88

Reign of Diocletian 89

III. Last Years of the Empire From Constantine to the Fall of

the Empire 91

Reign of Constantine 91

Reign of Valentinian 93

Reign of Theodosius 93

Reign of Honorius 94

Invasion of the Huns 97

CHAPTER VIII. THE TRANSITIONAL PERIOD 98

I. The Eastern Roman Empire 100

II. England '. 103

The Arthurian Period 103

Early England— To the Time of Egbert 105

PART II. THE MEDIEVAL ERA

THE MEDIEVAL ERA Ill

CHAPTER I. THE EMPIRE OF CHARLEMAGNE 113

CHAPTER II. FRANCE— TO THE HUNDRED YEARS'

WAR 116

Reign of Louis VII 117

Reign of Philip Augustus 119

Reign of Philip IV 121

CHAPTER III. ENGLAND— TO THE HUNDRED YEARS'

WAR 123

I. To the Norman Conquest 124

Reign of Alfred the Great 124

Reign of Edwy 127

Reign of Ethelred II 127

The Danish Kings. . . 128

Return to the English Line 129

Edward the Confessor 129

Reign of Harold 130

CONTENTS y

II. The Norman Period / 131

Reign of William the Conqueror, l/ 132

Reign of William Ruf us 133

Reign of Henry 1 136

Reign of Stephen 137

III. The Angevin or Plantagenet Kings 139

Reign of Henry II 139

Reign of Richard 1 143

Reign of John 146

Reign of Henry III 148

Reign of Edward 1 151

Reign of Edward II 156

CHAPTER IV. THE CRUSADES 159

The Various Crusades 160

The First Crusade 161

The Third Crusade 162

The Children's Crusade 164

CHAPTER V. ITALY— TO THE HUNDRED YEARS' WAR. 166

CHAPTER VI. THE HUNDRED YEARS' WAR 173

Reign of Edward III 174

Reign of Richard II 179

Reign of Henry IV 181

Reign of Henry V 183

Reign of Henry VI 185

CHAPTER VII. SCOTLAND. PERIOD OF THE HUNDRED

YEARS' WAR 189

Reign of James I 189

Reign of James II 191

CHAPTER VIII. ITALY. PERIOD OF THE HUNDRED

YEARS' WAR 194

CHAPTER IX. BELGIUM. PERIOD OF THE HUNDRED

YEARS' WAR 200

CHAPTER X. GERMANY-BOHEMIA. TO THE CLOSE OF

THE HUNDRED YEARS' WAR 204

CHAPTER XI. THE FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE 209

CHAPTER XII. ENGLAND. FROM THE FALL OF CON- STANTINOPLE TO THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA 215

I. Wars of the Roses 215

Reign of Henry VI 215

Reign of Edward IV 217

Reigns of Edward V and Richard III 221

II. House of Tudor 226

Reign of Henry VII 226

CHAPTER XIII. FRANCE. FROM THE FALL OF CON- STANTINOPLE TO THE DISCOVERY OF AMER- ICA 231

Reign of Louis XI 231

Reign of Charles VIII 236

vi CONTENTS

CHAPTER XIV. ITALY. FROM THE FALL OF CONSTAN- TINOPLE TO THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA.. 233

CHAPTER XV. SPAIN. FROM THE FALL OF CONSTAN- TINOPLE TO THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA.. 244

PART III. THE MODERN ERA

THE BRITISH ISLES

THE MODERN ERA 251

CHAPTER I. THE HOUSE OF TUDOR 253

Reign of Henry VIII 253

Scotland During the Reign of Henry VIII 259

Reign of Edward VI 261

Reign of Mary 263

Reign of Elizabeth 268

CHAPTER II. FROM THE AGE OF ELIZABETH TO THE

COMMONWEALTH 278

Reign of James 1 278

Reign of Charles 1 282

CHAPTER III. THE COMMONWEALTH 288

CHAPTER IV. FROM THE COMMONWEALTH TO THE

HOUSE OF HANOVER 295

Reign of Charles II 295

Reign of James II , 303

Reign of William III 306

Reign of Queen Anne 310

CHAPTER V. FROM THE STUART DYNASTY TO THE

FRENCH REVOLUTION 315

Reign of George 1 316

Reign of George II 321

Reign of George III 333

CHAPTER VI. FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION TO THE ACCESSION OF QUEEN

VICTORIA 339

Period of the French Revolution 33®

The Napoleonic Era 345

P_egency and Reign of George IV 348

Reign of William IV 351

CHAPTER VII. THE VICTORIAN AGE 354

Rebecca Riots 355

Daniel O'Connell 355

The Irish Famine 356

The Disruption 357

The Chartist Agitation 358

The Prison System 359

The Crimean War 359

The Cotton Famine 361

The Fenian Rebellion 362

Home Rule and Land League 362

Affairs in India 363

CONTENTS vii

FRANCE

CHAPTER I. FROM THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA TO

LOUIS XIV 368

Reign of Francis 1 369

Reign of Henry II 374

Reign of Charles IX 376

Reign of Henry III 379

Reign of Henry IV 382

Reign of Louis XIII 384

CHAPTER II. FROM THE ACCESSION OF LOUIS XIV

TO THE FRENCH REVOLUTION 391

Reign of Louis XIV 392

I. Administration of Mazarin 392

II. The Acme of Absolutism 395

III. Period of Decline 399

Reign of Louis XV * 405

Reign of Louis XVI 409

CHAPTER III. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION 413

To the National Convention 415

The National Convention 418

The Directory 426

CHAPTER IV. THE RISE AND EMPIRE OF NAPOLEON. 430

I. The Consulate 431

II. The Empire 434

The Third Coalition 436

The Fourth Coalition 437

Conflict with England Peninsula War 440

The Fifth Coalition 444

Invasion of Russia 446

The Sixth Coalition 448

The Waterloo Campaign 450

CHAPTER V. RESTORATION AND SECOND REPUBLIC 455

Reign of Louis XVIII 455

Reign of Charles X 456

Reign of Louis Philippe 456

The Second Republic. Presidency of Louis Napoleon 458

CHAPTER VI. THE SECOND EMPIRE AND THIRD RE- PUBLIC 461

Reign of Napoleon III 461

I. To the Franco-German War 461

II. The Franco-German War 464

The Third Republic 472

viii CONTENTS

AMERICA

I. To the American Revolution

To the American Revolution 475

CHAPTER I. DISCOVERY AND CONQUEST 477

CHAPTER II. THE FOUNDING OF THE COLONIES 482

Virginia 482

Massachusetts 484

New Netherland 489

Carolina and Georgia 491

CHAPTER III. THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR 494

II. The American Revolution

CHAPTER I. THE WAR IN NEW ENGLAND AND CANADA 500

The Stamp Act 500

The War in New England 501

The War in Canada 505

CHAPTER II. THE WAR IN THE MIDDLE STATES 508

CHAPTER III. NAVAL WARFARE OF THE REVOLUTION 515

CHAPTER IV. THE WAR IN THE SOUTHERN STATES. . . . 519

The Treason of Benedict Arnold 522

Closing Events of the War 524

III. Organization Development Sectionalism

Organization Development Sectionalism 526

CHAPTER I. TO THE WAR OF 1812 528

Administration of George Washington 528

Administration of John Adams 530

Administration of Thomas Jefferson 531

CHAPTER II. THE WAR OF 1812 535

Administration of James Madison 535

CHAPTER III. FROM THE WAR OF 1812 TO THE CIVIL

WAR 543

Administration of James Monroe 543

Administration of Andrew Jackson 545

Administration of Martin Van Buren 548

Administration of James K. Polk 550

The Mexican War 550

Administration of Zachary Taylor 552

Administration of James Buchanan 554

CHAPTER IV. THE CIVIL WAR 557

Administration of Abraham Lincoln

To the Capture of Vicksburg 558

From the Fall of Vicksburg to the Capture of Savannah 561

Closing Events of the War 565

CONTENTS ix

IV. Period of Expansion

CHAPTER I. TO THE WAR WITH SPAIN 568

Administration of Ulysses S. Grant 570

Administration of Grover Cleveland 571

Administration of Benjamin Harrison 572

Administration of Grover Cleveland 573

CHAPTER II. THE WAR WITH SPAIN 575

Administration of William McKinley 575

DOMINION OF CANADA

Dominion of Canada 580

CHAPTER I. CANADA UNDER FRANCE 581

CHAPTER II. CANADA UNDER GREAT BRITAIN 590

To the Reign of Queen Victoria 590

The Victorian Era 592

GERMANY— AUSTRIA

Germany Austria 598

CHAPTER I. FROM THE REFORMATION TO THE

THIRTY YEARS' WAR 599

Reigns of Maximilian I. and Charles V 600

CHAPTER II. THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR 606

CHAPTER III. FROM THE PEACE OF WESTPHALIA TO

THE PEACE OF PARIS 611

Silesian and Seven Years' Wars 612

CHAPTER IV. THE GERMAN CONFEDERATION AND

EMPIRE 616

To the Franco-German War 616

The Franco-German War 620

ITALY

CHAPTER I. TO THE FALL OF NAPOLEON 621

Contentions of Invaders 621

From the Council of Trent to Waterloo 627

CHAPTER II. ITALY SINCE THE FALL OF NAPOLEON.. 634

I. To the Revolution of 1848 634

II. The Unity of Italy 636

CONTENTS

SPAIN

CHAPTER I. FROM THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA TO

ISABELLA II 640

I. To the Reign of Philip III 640

II. From Philip III. to Philip V 644

CHAPTER II. REIGN OF ISABELLA II 647

HOLLAND— BELGIUM

Holland— Belgium 651

CHAPTER I. FROM THE REFORMATION TO THE RE- VOLT OF THE NETHERLANDS ,.. 652

CHAPTER II. THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 658

RUSSIA— POLAND

CHAPTER I. FROM IVAN IV. TO CATHERINE II 666

I. From Ivan IV to Peter the Great 667

Reign of Ivan IV 667

To the Reign of Michael 669

Reign of Alexis 669

II. Reign of Peter the Great 670

III. From Peter the Great to Catherine II 673

CHAPTER II. FROM CATHERINE II TO THE PRESENT

TIME 676

Reign of Catherine II 677

Reign of Paul 1 679

The Napoleonic Era 680

Reign of Nicholas 1 680

Reign of Alexander II 681

JAPAN— CHINA

I. The Commercial Treaty with Japan 683

II. The Boxer Rebellion 684

III. The Russo-Japanese War 685

AFRICA

I. The Portuguese Enterprise 688

II. The Kaffir Wars 688

III. The Ashanti War 689

IV. The Zulu War 690

V. The South African War 691

Conclusion 693

Index 695

FOREWORD

The peculiar distinction of historical fiction lies in its historical significance and relations. The design of the writers of such fic- tion is not simply the reconstruction of some historical period or event. The past is restored and made to live again. It is re- vived but it is also vivified. The novelist is not simply the histo- rian, just as he is not, properly speaking, a historian. His work is not a treatise on history, but he uses historical facts as the groundwork or setting of his larger purpose. He imparts a living significance to the by-gone events as the historian does not. He does not talk about the characters or report their deeds. They live, talk, and act for themselves in his representations. In a word, his work is that of delineation, characterization, interpreta- tion. But it is this as distinct from non-historical fiction, as deal- ing with the actualities of the past in the events and affairs of the world.

The ruling purpose of this volume is expressed in the title it is to interpret this class of fiction chronologically and historically. To do this in the manner designed it is necessary to bring forward the history of those periods and events which constitute the histor- ical setting of the fiction in each instance. In this manner the reader is made familiar with the facts, or the facts forgotten for the time being are brought back to recollection.

The intelligent understanding of this body of fiction requires some such historical procedure. The reader of any of these works may not be familiar with the facts. In such a case, to have the history briefly sketched in the manner in which it is here done and brought into such close relation to the stories precludes the necessity of resorting to the historical treatise for the facts.

Again, what is true of the ordinary facts of history relative to the historical setting of this fiction is equally true of the philosoph- ical, theological and other ideas that hold a dominant place in some of these works. That is true of such interests as Stoicism, Epicu- reanism, Neo-Platonism, Athanasianism, Arianism and other forms of the world's thinking. The treatment of these matters, and others of similar import that appear in the works of these

FOREWORB

authors, is in line with the general purpose as set forth in the historical sketches.

As regards the "Historical Outlines," in many instances but a limited portion of the whole period has any place in the stories written. But the Outline not only gives in this form the period as a whole, but it enables the reader to get the historical approach to those moments that are specifically treated.

The value of a treatise of this order is enhanced by the com- pleteness of the index. In this feature of our work special care has been taken to satisfy the most critical demands.

In placing this work before the public the author's aim is to bring these productions of the world's great workers into more direct connection with the facts with which they deal than has ordinarily been done by works dealing with historical fiction. The author entertains the hope that this treatment of the subject will not only inspire a deeper interest in the world's best books of this class, but place the reader in a position to understand aright their point of view.

Oak Park, 111. J. R. K.

HISTORICAL FICTION

Chronologically and Historically Related

PART I THE ANCIENT ERA

History should be studied from the standpoint of cause and effect. That is but a superficial understanding of history that can give a list of events but cannot supply the causal relation. Emer- son has said that history is biography ; but that explains it only in a measure. If the study of history is but the study of the indi- vidual, the social unit, the question remains, how are we to under- stand the individual? How connect the particulars with general principles ?

The last statement distinguishes the deeper meaning of his- tory. History is something more than a series of events, some- thing more than a string of historical beads with the string ignored or left out of account. The philosophy of history is the relation of particular events to their underlying causes and conditions. Not until this relation is discovered, and the laws and processes by which certain things have become inevitable are understood, can it be said that history has been invested with its true meaning. To understand why certain things operative in the Roman State for example, produced certain necessary results, is not only to grasp their significance in regard to Rome, but to establish that larger generalization, that the same causes operative under like conditions will produce like results.

When it is said that the whole of history is represented by an individual life several things are suggested. The first is, that the whole expresses the characteristics of the parts. The individual man is the measure of a community of men. The nation composed of individuals is subject to the law of individuals. The nation, as also the race, must pass through its various evolutions from

2 HISTORICAL FICTION

infancy to youth, maturity and old age, under the same deter- mining processes as govern individual development. And the understanding of this process relative to the individual life is the key to that larger racial development.

The study of history is the discovery of the seeds in their germination, perceiving the environments and operation of forces upon that hidden life, and watching for the bud, the blossom, and the flower as necessary stages in the process. The root may lie in Egypt and the flower appear in Greece. It is essential in this all-important study that we follow these movements from nation to nation, from age to age, in order properly to articulate the parts, and thus interpret the present by all the contributions of the past.

We can no more separate the modern from the ancient than we can separate the man from the boy. The elements of boyhood come to modification and maturity in manhood. In large measure they explain the man. So it is in regard to the vital relation that exists between these great eras of human history.

Human conditions and processes had their beginning in an- tiquity. The ideas of the ancients were in many respects imper- fect and crude. So are those of the child. We see ourselves in that childhood of the race seeking the solution of human problems. That early life was conscious of all those emotions and interests common to humanity. Their social and religious instincts were given expression according to their enlightenment. They did not create those instincts, they discovered them, and by them strug- gled to find their larger self. They sought for social unity without fully understanding the social unit.

Thus it is, that historical fiction that properly understands and appreciates the events and conditions of antiquity aims to present in a vital way the life, thought and ideals of that time. It speaks the language and expresses the moods of that age. It introduces us to our racial childhood. It sets forth in a more vivid and real- istic form the struggles, defeats and triumphs of the past, and thus not only narrates but interprets our life of ages ago.

Human history has been organized into somewhat arbitrary divisions upon a chronological basis. In historical treatises these divisions are not always the same. By some the ancient era is considered to terminate with the fall of the Roman Empire in the West, A. D. 476. Others extend the period to the time of Charle- magne. The medieval era, according to some, closed with the fall

THE ANCIENT ERA 3

of Constantinople in 1453, while others date the modern era from the discovery of America.

From the fall of Rome in 476 to the time of Charlemagne in 800 is a transitional period. In our division of these periods the ancient extends to the time of Charlemagne including the transi- tional period, while the medieval extends" to the time of the dis- covery of America in 1492. The modern, therefore, extends from 1492 to the present time*

CHAPTER I

EGYPT I. PRIOR TO THE CHRISTIAN ERA

As a nation the Egyptians have the greatest antiquity of any people known to us. How far back that antiquity extends is a point upon which scholars are not agreed. There is the same lack of agreement relative to Egyptian chronology. Manetho, an Egyptian priest, who belonged to the third century B. C, compiled thirty of the Egyptian dynasties from the time of Menes to the conquest of Egypt by Cambyses II. The Old Empire comprised the first ten of these dynasties ; the Middle Empire, as it is desig- nated, the next seven ; the New Empire, the next three. During the remaining dynasties Egypt was, in the main, under the domi- nation of other powers.

The contributions of this ancient state to the world's civiliza- tion have been very great. Access to extensive quarries enabled her to rear those mighty structures, the pyramids, on the west bank of the Nile, upon which the ages have looked down. The Cheops Pyramid, consisting of 2,300,000 massive blocks of stone, is an expression of that greatness. In some respects, in the building art the ancient Egyptians have never been surpassed. Rawlinson's statement is noteworthy: "It is doubtful if the steam-sawing of the present day could be trusted to produce in ten years from the quarries of Aberdeen a single obelisk such as those which the Pharaohs set up by dozens."

We are indebted to the Egyptians for the division of the year into 365 days. This calendar Julius Caesar introduced into the Roman Empire, and with the slight change made in the sixteenth century, has been adopted by nearly all the world to the present time. To Egypt the Greeks and Romans were greatly indebted for the germs of much of their culture. Greek philosophers sat at the feet of Egyptian priests and thus did Egypt contribute to that brilliant civilization of the Greeks. "We are," says Sayce, "the heirs of the civilized past, and a goodly portion of that civil-

4

THE ANCIENT ERA 5

ized past was the creation of ancient Egypt." She lit the torch of civilization and passed it on to the West.

Again, it was in Egypt that the early Israelites found a home, and under the most favorable conditions developed into a strong people prepared to begin their national existence in their own land that should affect the destinies of the human race. It was in Egypt that the child Christ found a refuge from the murderous Herod, and like his nation came forth from her to his own land to accomplish the most significant work of any member of Adam's race.

It would be strange if a nation having such a history should not be a rich field for the writers of fiction. Indeed, it is a most inviting field for the historical novelist, which will appear in the works to which we are about to give attention.

The purpose of the following historical outline, and of all such outlines in this volume, is to set forth the historical movement, and thus relate the periods for the specific relation of the historical fiction to the periods in which they have their setting. Thus these outlines furnish the approach to those periods and events with which we are particularly concerned.

Historical Outline:

I. The Old Empire. Dynasties i-io.

1. Menes, Founder of the First Dynasty, and the first three

dynasties (about 4500-3700 B. C).

2. The Fourth Dynasty (about 3700-3500). The kings of

this dynasty reigned at Memphis. They are called the Pyramid Kings builders of the pyramids.

II. The Middle Empire. Dynasties 11-17.

Following the Sixth Dynasty is a period of obscurity. Memphis recedes from view and Thebes comes forth, the seat of royalty.

1. The Twelfth Dynasty (about 2500-2300), or, according to

some scholars, 2000-1800. This dynasty was one of the most brilliant periods in Egyptian history, and was spoken of as the Golden Age.

2. The Hyksos, or Shepherd, Kings (about 2000-1575).

Apepi I. Science and letters seem to have flourished during his reign.

6 HISTORICAL FICTION

Apepi II. Flourished about 1650 B. C.

Little is known of either of these kings, and only a few scanty memorials of them have been found. The date of their conquest of Egypt is doubtful. War chariots now appear for the first time upon the mon- uments.

III. The New Empire.

1. The Eighteenth Dynasty (about 1575-1358).

a. Expulsion of the Hyksos Line by the Theban prince

Amasis, who became the first sovereign of the Eighteenth Dynasty.

b. Thothmes III (about 1 500-1450). One of the great-

est conquerors and builders among the Pharaohs.

2. The Nineteenth Dynasty (about 1359- 1253).

a. Rameses I.

b. Seti I (about 1356- 1347).

c. Rameses II (about 1347-1280).

d. Manephtha (about 1275).

3. The Twentieth Dynasty.

a. Founded by Setnokpt.

b. Rameses III (about 1210).

C. The nine, following Rameses III, reigned peacefully to about 1 100.

IV. Egypt Under Foreign Domination.

1. Ethiopians form Dynasty Twenty-five.

2. The Twenty-sixth Dynasty.

a. Psammeticus I, 663-610. He drove out the foreign-

ers and became the founder of this dynasty.

b. Necho II, 610-594.

c. Psammeticus II.

d. Apries, 588-569.

e. Amasis II, 569-526.

f. Psammeticus III. Reigned one year.

3. Egypt under Babylonian and Persian control. Taken by

Cambyses, 525, and became a Persian province.

4. Conquered by Alexander the Great, 332.

5. The Graeco-Egyptian Empire of the Ptolemies.

THE ANCIENT ERA 7

a. Ptolemy I, 323-283.

b. Ptolemy II, 283-247.

c. Ptolemy III, 247-222.

d. Ptolemy XIII, 80-52.

e. Cleopatra, 52-30. Daughter of Ptolemy XIII. End

of the period of the Ptolemies. 6. The Battle of Actium, B. C. 30, and Egypt annexed to the Roman Empire.

Period of the. Hyksos Kings

Comparatively little is known of these foreigners. The word Hyksos signifies Shepherd Kings. Many scholars incline to the view that they were wandering tribes of Arabia and Syria. Just when they usurped the throne of Egypt is a matter of consider- able speculation. Various dates are given for their conquest of Egypt, and there is the same difference of opinion as to the length of time they held the throne. According to some authorities they ruled from B. C. 2200 to 1700; according to other accounts from 2000 to 1500 or 1575 ; still others limit the time to about 100 years. One thing seems certain that their expulsion was followed by the Eighteenth Dynasty.

There is also lack of agreement among scholars as to the pe- riod of the sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt. Those who incline to the period of the Hyksos rule lay stress upon the fact that it would be more probable that Joseph was made prime minister by a foreign, than by an Egyptian, king; also, that when Jacob came to Egypt Joseph instructed him that if Pharaoh should in- quire about his occupation he should tell him they were shepherds. It is the opinion of others that Rameses II was the oppressor of the Israelites. We shall have occasion to note this view when we come to that reign.

Apepi, or Apophis, is the name of two kings of the Hyksos line. Little is known of either. Apepi II seems to have flourished about B. C. 1650. Several monuments bear his name. In the British Museum is a papyrus which contains a legendary account of the strife that arose about religious matters between this king and Sekeneur, Prince of Thebes. From this it would seem that dur- ing this reign the war for Egyptian independence began.

The author of the story given below evidently supported the

8 HISTORICAL FICTION

view that the sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt was during the period of the Hyksos Dynasty, as seen from the introduction of Joseph into the story. Animal worship holds a significant place in the author's work. The Egyptians regarded certain animals as emblems of the gods and hence made them the objects of wor- ship. Some were even regarded as real gods. The scarab, or beetle, for example, being an emblem of life, was held in greatest reverence. To kill a sacred animal, even by accident, placed the life of the person committing the deed in great danger.

The Egyptians believed that the spirit of Osiris became em- bodied in some bull. When Apis, as the sacred bull was called, died, it was an occasion of great mourning. He was embalmed and buried with great ceremony, and then was instituted a search throughout the land for the calf born at the moment that Apis died, having certain bodily markings, for into this calf the soul of Osiris entered when it departed from Apis at his death.

The Story The Stonecutter of Memphis. 1904. William P. Kelly

This story has its setting in the reign of Apepi II, the last Pharaoh of the Hyksos Kings. He is personally introduced. The author seeks to give a clear representation of this period in Egypt. Animal worship plays a significant part in that the heroine, charged with killing a sacred cat, must suffer the penalty of being sold into slavery. From this sentence she is rescued by the media- tion of the prime minister Joseph.

Reign of Thothmes III

For this period in Egyptian history the reader is referred to the historical outline. The Hyksos Kings were expelled by Amasis, the founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Thothmes was one of the greatest kings of this dynasty. He was called the Alexander of Egyptian history. During his reign and by his con- quests the empire reached its greatest expansion. He conquered the region between the Euphrates and the Mediterranean, which conquests were recorded on the walls of the temple of Karnak. A great part of this temple at Thebes was constructed by him. What remains of it constitutes the most majestic ruin in the

THE ANCIENT ERA 9

world. His building operations in the Nile valley were numerous. One of his great obelisks may be seen in Central Park, New York, another in Constantinople and another beside the Thames in London.

The Story

The Cat of Bubastes. 1888. George A. Henty

The author (1832-1902) was born at Trumpington, England. He was educated at the Westminster School and Caius College, Cambridge. During the earlier part of the Crimean War he served in the British army. As war correspondent of the London Standard he accompanied the contestants of the Austro-Italian, Turco-Servian and Franco-German Wars. In 1868 he joined the Abyssinian Expedition, and in 1873 the Ashanti Expedition. He took part in Garibaldi's Tyrolean campaigns, and was with the Prince of Wales in his travels through India. In the main, his books are historical novels, adapted to boys, and was a most pro- lific and popular writer.

The Cat of Bubastes is a tale of Egypt in the time of Thothmes III. It sets forth the expedition of the king in his conquest of a people called the Rebu. In connection with the preceding story we noticed that that author placed the sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt in the time of the Hyksos Kings. Henty, in this story, has them in Egypt during the Eighteenth Dynasty, and has Moses appear in the reign of Thothmes III, in which case, the Exodus occurred about forty years later.

Thebes

Menes was the founder of the First Dynasty, and tradition declares that he built the city of Memphis. The kings of the Fourth Dynasty, called the Pyramid Kings, reigned at Memphis. During the period of obscurity following the Sixth Dynasty Mem- phis is lost to view and Thebes becomes the seat of power. The Theban temples, raised by the later Pharaohs, are a standing testi- mony to the greatness of this period. As Lenormant says, "Thebes, in spite of all the ravages of time and of the barbarian, still presents the grandest, the most prodigious assemblage of buildings ever erected by the hand of man."

io HISTORICAL FICTION

The Story The Witch Queen of Khem. 1909. Eno Fitzgerald

In this romance the author has laid the scene in Thebes in the period of its distinction as the seat of royalty.

Period of Rameses II

By referring to the historical outline the reader will note that Rameses was the third king of the Nineteenth Dynasty. His predecessor, Seti I, was a great warrior and builder. One of his most important wars was with the Hittites, whose capital was Carchemish on the Euphrates. They were a powerful people and a menace to Egyptian interests in Syria. Seti gained a great victory over them. Rameses conducted campaigns against this same people, but did not seem to be so fortunate. Instead of subduing them he concluded a peace with them which placed the Hittites on an equality with the Egyptians. Rameses then mar- ried the daughter of the king of the Hittites. His reign, extend- ing over a period of sixty-seven years, is given by ancient writers the most exalted place in Egyptian history.

The Hittites are first mentioned in connection with Abraham who purchased from them the Cave of Machpelah in Hebron. Their empire at one time extended over a large part of Asia Minor and Syria. It is the opinion of some scholars that it was Rameses II who oppressed the Israelites, and that it was during the reign of his son Manephtha that the Exodus occurred. It is pointed out that an inscription found in 1896 shows that in the fifth year of Manephtha Israel was already settled in Palestine, and that an earlier date must be sought for the Exodus. On the other hand, it is clear from the Amarna Letters, written about B. C. 1400, that at that time Israel had not entered the Promised Land. Thus it would seem that the date of the Exodus must be placed in the interval between these two limits, or, in round num- bers, about 1400 and 1250.

The Stories

Uarda. 1877. Georg M. Ebers

The author (1837-1898) was born at Berlin, Germany. He was a student of Egyptian life and devoted himself to the study of Egyptology. After spending an extended time in the East,

THE ANCIENT ERA II

in 1870 he was made professor of Egyptology at Leipsic. He is the author of a number of learned works, the most important of which are Egypt and the Books of Moses, and Through Goshen to Sinai. The most famous of his historical novels is Uarda.

As the author tells us, it was while studying the monuments of Thebes, that solemn city of the dead, and while riding in the silent desert, that the germ of this story was born. He knows his Egypt well and describes the habits, customs and ruling ideas of the time. Uarda, a beautiful Greek girl of royal blood, with her mother Xanthe, had been carried away a captive to Thebes, While Rameses is away at war a plot to seize the throne is con- cocted, and in the battle of Kadesh he is betrayed with a view to his defeat and destruction.

Rameses, in his conflict with the Greek king and his Asiatic allies, is wholly victorious at Kadesh, and as the former is brought into the presence of Uarda he cries out "Xanthe, Xanthe! Is your spirit free from Hades? Are you come to summon me?" He sees in her the picture of his lost daughter of years ago, and Uarda, after these years of separation from her people, proves to be his grand-daughter. This fact is absolutely established by the means of a jewel, one-half of which was in the keeping of Uarda, and the other half, which completed it, and which had belonged to Xanthe, was then being worn by the other daughter of the Greek king, who is also present.

The son of Rameses and Uarda are lovers and are fully pledged to each other by the two kings. He marries her in her own land, the land of the Danaids, and after the death of her grandfather he ruled over many islands of the Mediterranean and became the founder of a great race, whjle "Uarda's name was held in tender remembrance by their subjects."

In connection with this same general period may be noted the two following works :

The King's Treasure House. 1886. Wilhelm Walloth

This is a romance of ancient Egypt prior to the Exodus.

The World's Desire. 1891. Henry Rider Haggard and Andrew Lang

This story introduces the Exodus of the Israelites.

12 HISTORICAL FICTION

Period of Rameses XIII

Rameses XIII was followed by nine kings of little importance (Rameses IV-XII), all bearing the same name. During this period Egypt shows a steady decline. These nine kings were mere tools in the hands of the priesthood of Ammon. It was about B. C. noo when Her Hor (Smendes), the high priest of Ammon of Thebes, dethroned Rameses XII and himself took the crown. He was the founder of the Twenty-first Dynasty. His building operations at Karnak were considerable, and it is believed that it was he who stored away the royal mummies which were discov- ered by Brugsch Bey in 1881.

The Story

The Pharaoh and the Priest. 1897. Aleksander Glovatski

This famous Polish writer (1847-) *s distinguished for his life-like portraits of children, and the manner in which he depicts peasant life and animal peculiarities. His humor conceals a deep sympathy for the unfortunate to which is added a masterful power of character analysis.

This story deals with what has already been indicated by the preceding statement. It sets forth the conflict between the throne and the hierarchy, the king and the priest, the secular and the ecclesiastical. The priest finally dominates the situation and be- comes the Pharaoh.

Period of Ptolemy II

Our next romance brings us a long step forward in Egyptian history as the reader will observe by noting again the historical outline. We pass over a period of eight centuries. During this time Egypt fell under foreign domination. The Twenty-fifth Dynasty was that of the Ethiopian rule. Psammeticus I drove out the foreigner and became the founder of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty which extended to B. C. 525. This was followed by the Babylonian and Persian control. Egypt was conquered by Cam- byses in 525 and became a Persian province. In B. C. 331 Alex- ander the Great conquered Persia in the battle of Arbela, having already in the year preceding conquered Egypt.

THE ANCIENT ERA 13

Following the death of Alexander in 323 his empire was di- vided between his four generals. Ptolemy I secured the govern- ment of Egypt. He made Alexandria a center of Greek culture and founded the famous Alexandrian library. As a patron of learning and literature he induced philosophers, artists and poets to settle in the city. He erected the Pharos, or lighthouse, to guide the fleets of the nations to his capital.

Polemy II pursued the policies of his father in the mainte- nance and extension of intellectual interests. It was by his order that the Hebrew Bible, known as the Septuagint, was translated into Greek, one of the most important versions of the Old Testa- ment. Arsinoe became the wife of her brother, Ptolemy II, the beginning of the series of sister-marriages which were in accord- ance with the Egyptian custom and equally opposed to the Greek tradition. She held a large place in her husband's affections, who named after her the capital of the Fayum. He employed the abilities of the architect Dinochares to erect to her a splendid tomb and memorial temple. In matters of government she seems to have been of considerable assistance to Ptolemy.

As indicated by the historical outline, the last sovereign of this line was the beautiful Cleopatra.

The Story Arachne. 1898. Georg M. Ebers

The scene of this historical novel is laid in Alexandria in the reign of Ptolemy II. Arachne is a statue, and from the disquisi- tions on realism in art one could imagine the time to be the present century. Greek art, the sculptors and their models, are set forth. In rather striking contrast to the aesthetic is the moral degenera-